Emigration – process of relocating and establishing permanent residence in a country or region other than one’s place of previous residence. It can be driven by a variety of reasons, including the search for better economic and career opportunities, a superior quality of life, political instability, conflict or war, family circumstances or educational goals.
Emigrant – a person who leaves their country of residence to settle permanently in another country or region. Emigrants often seek better opportunities and living conditions, including for economic, social, educational or political reasons.
Immigrant – a person who comes to another country or region to become a permanent resident. They officially enter the new country, usually by obtaining a visa or TRP, and may seek PRP status or citizenship.
Migration growth – the difference between the number of immigrants (people who entered the country) and the number of emigrants (people who left the country) over a given period. It reflects the change in a country’s population as a result of migration processes.
Internal migration – the movement of people within the territory of a country from one region or place to another. Internal migration can be caused by various factors, including the search for better economic and living conditions, educational opportunities, changes in the structure of employment, social or political changes and others.
International migration – the process of people crossing the borders of different countries or regions to take up permanent or temporary residence in another country. It includes the movement of people from one country to another, regardless of the reasons for and duration of their stay.
Temporary migration – the movement of people for a period of time to another country or region for work, study, tourism or other temporary purposes. Unlike immigration, which implies permanent residence, temporary migration is of a temporary nature and involves a limited period of stay in the country of arrival.
Refugee – status granted to people who are forced to leave their country of residence due to fear of persecution, conflict, violence or emergency. Refugees seek asylum and international protection in other countries in order to protect their lives, freedom and rights.
Return migration – the process by which people who have previously travelled to another country or region for work, study or other purposes return to their country of origin. Return can be voluntary, when migrants choose to return, or forced, when they are forced to leave their host country for various reasons, such as the expiry of a visa, loss of employment or changes in life circumstances.
Russian citizenship – a legal status granted to citizens of the Russian Federation. Persons who are citizens of Russia have certain rights, duties and privileges guaranteed by the Constitution of the Russian Federation.
Migration center – an institution, organization or office that provides information, counselling and legal services in the field of migration and immigration. It may be a public or private institution and performs various functions related to migration processes.
Population migration – the process by which people move from one place of residence to another, either within the same country or across the borders of different countries. Population migration can be caused by various factors, including economic, social, political or family reasons.